**1999 PACS, 00. - 09.**

**01. Communication, Education, History, and Philosophy**

01.10.-m Announcements, news, and organizational activities

01.10.Cr Announcements, news, and awards

01.10.Fv Conferences, lectures, and institutes

01.10.Hx Physics organizational activities

01.20.+x Communication forms and techniques (written, oral, electronic,
etc.)

01.30.-y Physics literature and publications

01.30.Bb Publications of lectures (advanced institutes, summer schools, etc.)

01.30.Cc Conference proceedings

01.30.Ee Monographs and collections

01.30.Kj Handbooks, dictionaries, tables, and data compilations

01.30.Mm Textbooks for graduates and researchers

01.30.Pp Textbooks for undergraduates

01.30.Rr Surveys and tutorial papers; resource letters

01.30.Tt Bibliographies

01.30.Vv Book reviews

01.30.Xx Publications in electronic media (for the topic of electronic
publishing, see 01.20)

01.40.-d Education

01.40.Di Course design and evaluation

01.40.Ej Science in elementary and secondary school

01.40.Fk Physics education research (cognition, problem solving, etc.)

01.40.Gm Curricula; teaching methods, strategies, theory of testing,
evaluation

01.40.Jp Teacher training

01.50.-i Educational aids

01.50.Fr Audio and visual aids, films

01.50.Ht Instructional computer use

01.50.Kw Techniques of testing

01.50.Lc Laboratory computer use (see also 01.50.P)

01.50.My Demonstration experiments and apparatus

01.50.Pa Laboratory experiments and apparatus (see also 01.50.L)

01.50.Qb Laboratory course design, organization, and evaluation

01.50.Wg Physics of toys

01.52.+r National and international laboratory facilities

01.55.+b General physics

01.60.+q Biographies, tributes, personal notes, and obituaries

01.65.+g History of science

01.70.+w Philosophy of science

01.75.+m Science and society (for science and government, see 01.78)

01.78.+p Science and government (funding, politics, etc.)

01.80.+b Physics of sports

01.90.+g Other topics of general interest (restricted to new topics in
section 01)

**02. Mathematical Methods in Physics**

02.10.-v Logic, set theory, and algebra

02.10.By Logic and foundations

02.10.Cz Set theory

02.10.Eb Combinatorics

02.10.Gd Order, lattices, and ordered algebraic structures

02.10.Jf General mathematical systems

02.10.Lh Number theory

02.10.Nj Algebraic number theory, field theory, and polynomials

02.10.Pk Commutative rings and algebras

02.10.Rn Algebraic geometry

02.10.Sp Linear and multilinear algebra; matrix theory (finite and infinite)

02.10.Tq Associative rings and algebras

02.10.Vr Nonassociative rings and algebras

02.10.Ws Category theory and homological algebra

02.20.-a Group theory (for algebraic methods in quantum mechanics, see
03.65.F;
for symmetries in elementary particle physics, see 11.30)

02.20.Df Finite groups

02.20.Fh Infinite groups

02.20.Hj Classical linear algebraic groups

02.20.Km Abelian groups

02.20.Mp Semigroups

02.20.Nq Topological groups, general

02.20.Qs General properties, structure, and representation of Lie groups

02.20.Rt Discrete subgroups of Lie groups

02.20.Sv Lie algebras of Lie groups

02.20.Tw Infinite-dimensional Lie groups

02.30.-f Function theory, analysis

02.30.Bi Real functions

02.30.Cj Measure and integration

02.30.Dk Functions of a complex variable

02.30.Em Potential theory

02.30.Fn Several complex variables and analytic spaces

02.30.Gp Special functions

02.30.Hq Ordinary differential equations

02.30.Jr Partial differential equations

02.30.Ks Delay and functional equations

02.30.Lt Sequences, series, and summability

02.30.Mv Approximations and expansions

02.30.Nw Fourier analysis

02.30.Px Abstract harmonic analysis

02.30.Qy Integral transforms and operational calculus

02.30.Rz Integral equations

02.30.Sa Functional analysis

02.30.Tb Operator theory

02.30.Wd Calculus of variations and optimal control

02.40.-k Geometry, differential geometry, and topology (see also 04 Relativity
and gravitation)

02.40.Dr Euclidean and projective geometries

02.40.Ft Convex sets and geometric inequalities

02.40.Hw Classical differential geometry

02.40.Ky Riemannian geometries

02.40.Ma Global differential geometry

02.40.Pc General topology

02.40.Re Algebraic topology

02.40.Sf Manifolds and cell complexes

02.40.Vh Global analysis and analysis on manifolds

02.50.-r Probability theory, stochastic processes, and statistics (see also 05
Statistical physics)

02.50.Cw Probability theory

02.50.Ey Stochastic processes

02.50.Fz Stochastic analysis

02.50.Ga Markov processes

02.50.Hb Queuing theory

02.50.Kd Foundations of statistics; sufficiency

02.50.Le Decision theory and game theory

02.50.Ng Distribution theory and Monte Carlo studies

02.50.Ph Parametric inference

02.50.Rj Nonparametric inference

02.50.Sk Multivariate analysis

02.50.Vn Linear inference

02.50.Wp Inference from stochastic processes

02.60.-x Numerical approximation and analysis

02.60.Cb Numerical simulation; solution of equations

02.60.Dc Numerical linear algebra

02.60.Ed Interpolation; curve fitting

02.60.Gf Algorithms for functional approximation

02.60.Jh Numerical differentiation and integration

02.60.Lj Ordinary and partial differential equations; boundary value problems

02.60.Nm Integral and integrodifferential equations

02.60.Pn Numerical optimization

02.70.-c Computational techniques

02.70.Bf Finite-difference methods

02.70.Dh Finite-element and Galerkin methods

02.70.Fj Finite-volume methods

02.70.Hm Spectral methods

02.70.Jn Collocation methods

02.70.Lq Monte Carlo and statistical methods

02.70.Ns Molecular dynamics and particle methods

02.70.Pt Boundary-integral methods

02.90.+p Other topics in mathematical methods in physics (restricted to
new topics in section 02)

**03. Quantum mechanics, field theories, and special relativity** (see
also 11 General theory of
fields and particles)

03.30.+p Special relativity

03.50.-z Classical field theories

03.50.De Classical electromagnetism, Maxwell equations (for applied
classical electromagnetism, see 41.20)

03.50.De Maxwell theory: general mathematical aspects (for applied classical
electrodynamics, see 41)

03.50.Kk Other special classical field theories

03.65.-w Quantum mechanics (see also 05.30 Quantum statistical mechanics)

03.65.Bz Foundations, theory of measurement, miscellaneous theories (including
Aharonov-Bohm effect, Bell inequalities, Berry's phase)

03.65.Ca Formalism

03.65.Db Functional analytical methods

03.65.Fd Algebraic methods (see also 02.20 Group theory)

03.65.Ge Solutions of wave equations: bound states

03.65.Nk Nonrelativistic scattering theory (see also 03.80 General theory of
scattering)

03.65.Pm Relativistic wave equations

03.65.Sq Semiclassical theories and applications

03.67.-a Quantum information

03.67.Dd Quantum cryptography

03.67.Hk Quantum communication

03.67.Lx Quantum computation

03.70.+k Theory of quantized fields (see also 11.10 Field theory)

03.75.-b Matter waves

03.75.Be Atom and neutron optics

03.75.Dg Atom and neutron interferometry

03.75.Fi Phase coherent atomic ensembles; quantum condensation phenomena

**04. General Relativity and Gravitation** (for relativistic cosmology, see 98.80.H)

04.20.-q Classical general relativity (see also 02.40 Geometry and topology)

04.20.Cv Fundamental problems and general formalism

04.20.Dw Singularities and cosmic censorship

04.20.Ex Initial value problem, existence and uniqueness of solutions

04.20.Fy Canonical formalism, Lagrangians, and variational principles

04.20.Gz Spacetime topology, causal structure, spinor structure

04.20.Ha Asymptotic structure

04.20.Jb Exact solutions

04.25.-g Approximation methods; equations of motion

04.25.Dm Numerical relativity

04.25.Nx Post-Newtonian approximation; perturbation theory; related
approximations

04.30.-w Gravitational waves: theory

04.30.Db Wave generation and sources

04.30.Nk Wave propagation and interactions

04.40.-b Self-gravitating systems; continuous media and classical fields in
curved spacetime

04.40.Dg Relativistic stars: structure, stability, and oscillations (for
relativistic astrophysics, see 95.30.S)

04.40.Nr Einstein-Maxwell spacetimes, spacetimes with fluids, radiation or
classical fields

04.50.+h Gravity in more than four dimensions, Kaluza-Klein theory, unified
field theories, alternative theories of gravity (see also
11.25.M
Compactification and four-dimensional models)

04.60.-m Quantum gravity (see also 98.80.H Quantum cosmology)

04.60.Ds Canonical quantization

04.60.Gw Covariant and sum-over-histories quantization

04.60.Kz Lower dimensional models; minisuperspace models

04.60.Nc Lattice and discrete methods

04.62.+v Quantum field theory in curved spacetime

04.65.+e Supergravity (see also 12.60.J Supersymmetric models)

04.70.-s Physics of black holes (for astrophysics of black holes, see
97.60.L)

04.70.Bw Classical black holes

04.70.Dy Quantum aspects of black holes, evaporation, thermodynamics

04.80.-y Experimental studies of gravity

04.80.Cc Experimental tests of gravitational theories

04.80.Nn Gravitational wave detectors and experiments
(see also 95.55.Y in Astronomical instrumentation)

04.90.+e Other topics in general relativity and gravitation (restricted to
new topics in section 04)

** 05.
Statistical physics, thermodynamics, and nonlinear dynamical
systems ** (see also 02.50 Probability theory, stochastic processes,
and statistics)

05.10.-a Computational methods in statistical physics and nonlinear
dynamics (see also 02.70 in mathematical methods in physics)

05.10.Cc Renormalization group methods

05.10.Gg Stochastic analysis methods (Fokker-Planck, Langevin, etc.)

05.10.Ln Monte Carlo methods

General theory in fluid dynamics)

05.20.-y Classical statistical mechanics

05.20.Dd Kinetic theory

05.20.Gg Classical ensemble theory

05.20.Jj Statistical mechanics of classical fluids (see also 47.10
05.30.-d Quantum statistical mechanics

05.30.Ch Quantum ensemble theory

05.30.Fk Fermion systems and electron gas

05.30.Jp Boson systems

05.30.Pr Fractional statistics systems (anyons, etc.)

05.40.-a Fluctuation phenomena, random processes, noise, and Brownian
motion

05.40.Ca Noise

05.40.Fb Random walks and Levy flights

05.40.Jc Brownian motion

05.45.-a Nonlinear dynamics and nonlinear dynamical systems (see also
45
Classical mechanics of discrete systems)

05.45.Ac Low-dimensional chaos

05.45.Df Fractals (see also 47.53 Fractals in Fluid dynamics)

05.45.Gg Control of chaos, applications of chaos

05.45.Jn High-dimensional chaos

05.45.Mt Semiclassical chaos ("quantum chaos")

05.45.Pq Numerical simulations of chaotic models

05.45.Ra Coupled map lattices

05.45.Tp Time series analysis

05.45.Vx Communication using chaos

05.45.Xt Synchronization; coupled oscillators

05.45.Yv Solitons (see 52.35.S for solitons in Plasma;
42.50.M, 42.65,T,
42.81.D for solitons in Optics)

05.50.+q Lattice theory and statistics (Ising, Potts, etc.) (see also
64.60.C Order-disorder transformations and statistical mechanics
of model systems and 75.10.H Classical spin models)

05.60.-k Transport processes

05.60.Cd Classical transport

05.60.Gg Quantum transport

05.65.+b Self-organized systems (see also 45.70 in classical mechanics of
discrete systems)

05.70.-a Thermodynamics (see also 64 Equations of state, phase equilibria, and
phase transitions, and 65 Thermal properties of condensed matter; for
chemical thermodynamics, see 82.60)

05.70.Ce Thermodynamic functions and equations of state

05.70.Fh Phase transitions: general studies

05.70.Jk Critical point phenomena

05.70.Ln Nonequilibrium thermodynamics, irreversible processes (see also
82.20.M Nonequilibrium kinetics, and
82.40.B Oscillations, chaos, and
bifurcations in homogeneous and nonequilibrium reactors)

05.70.Np Interface and surface thermodynamics (see also 82.65.D
Thermodynamics of surfaces and interfaces in physical chemistry)

05.90.+m Other topics in statistical physics, thermodynamics, and nonlinear
dynamical systems (restricted to new topics in section 05)

**06. Metrology, Measurements, and Laboratory Procedures**

06.20.-f Metrology

06.20.Dk Measurement and error theory

06.20.Fn Units and standards

06.20.Jr Determination of fundamental constants

06.30.-k Measurements common to several branches of physics and astronomy

06.30.Bp Spatial dimensions (e.g., position, lengths, volume, angles,
displacements, including nanometer-scale displacements)

06.30.Dr Mass and density

06.30.Ft Time and frequency

06.30.Gv Velocity, acceleration, and rotation

06.60.-c Laboratory procedures

06.60.Ei Sample preparation (including design of sample holders)

06.60.Jn High-speed techniques (microsecond to femtosecond)

06.60.Mr Testing and inspecting procedures

06.60.Sx Positioning and alignment; manipulating, remote handling

06.60.Vz Workshop procedures (welding, machining, lubrication, bearings, etc.)

06.60.Wa Laboratory safety procedures

06.90.+v Other topics in metrology, measurements, and laboratory procedures
(restricted to new topics in section 06)

**07. Instruments, Apparatus, Components, and Techniques
common to several Branches of physics and astronomy**
7.05.-t Computers in experimental physics

***** Computers in physics education, see 01.50.H and 01.50.L

***** Computational techniques, see 02.70 - in mathematical methods in physic s

***** Quantum computation, see 03.67.L in quantum mechanics

07.05.Bx Computer systems: hardware, operating systems, computer languages, and utilities

07.05.Dz Control systems

07.05.Fb Design of experiments

07.05.Hd Data acquisition: hardware and software

07.05.Kf Data analysis: algorithms and implementation; data management

07.05.Mh Neural networks, fuzzy logic, artificial intelligence

07.05.Pj Image processing: (see also 42.30.V in optics)

07.05.Rm Data presentation and visualization: algorithms and implementation

07.05.Tp Computer modeling and simulation

07.05.Wr Computer interfaces

07.07.-a General equipment and techniques

07.07.Df Sensors (chemical, optical, electrical, movement, gas, etc.); remote sensing

07.07.Hj Display and recording equipment, oscilloscopes, TV cameras, etc.

07.07.Mp Transducers

07.07.Tw Servo and control equipment; robots

07.07.Vx Hygrometers

07.10.-h Mechanical instruments, equipment, and techniques

07.10.Cm Micromechanical devices and systems: (see also 85.42 Nanotechnology)

07.10.Fq Vibration isolation

07.10.Lw Balance systems, tensile machines, etc.

07.10.Pz Instruments for strain, force, and torque

07.20.-n Thermal instruments, apparatus, and techniques

07.20.Dt Thermometry

07.20.Fw Calorimetry

07.20.Hy Furnaces; heaters

07.20.Ka High-temperature techniques and instrumentation; pyrometry

07.20.Mc Cryogenics, refrigerators; low-temperature techniques

07.20.Pe Heat engines; heat pumps

07.30.-t Vacuum apparatus and techniques (see also 47.45 Rarefied gas dynamics)

07.30.Bx Degasification, residual gas

07.30.Cy Vacuum pumps

07.30.Dz Vacuum gauges

07.30.Hd Vacuum testing methods; leak detectors

07.30.Kf Vacuum chambers, auxiliary apparatus, and materials

07.35.+k High-pressure apparatus and techniques; shock tubes; diamond anvil cells

07.50.-e Electrical and electronic components, instruments, and techniques

07.50.Ek Circuits and circuit components: (see also 85.20--in electrical and magnetic devices)

07.50.Hp Electrical noise and shielding, interference

07.50.Ls Electrometers

07.50.Qx Signal processing electronics

07.55.-w Magnetic components, instruments and techniques

07.55.Db Generation of magnetic fields; magnets: (see also 85.70.N--in magnetic devices)

07.55.Ge Magnetometers for magnetic field measurements

07.55.Jg Magnetometers for susceptibility, magnetic moment, and magnetization measurements

07.55.Nk Magnetic shielding in instruments

07.57.-c Infrared, submillimeter wave, microwave and radiowave instruments, equipment and techniques (for infrared and radio telescopes, see 95.55)

07.57.Hm Infrared, submillimeter wave, microwave, and radiowave sources

07.57.Kp Bolometer; infrared, submillimeter wave, microwave, and radiowave receivers and detectors (see also 85.60.G Photodetectors and infrared detectors)

07.57.Pt Submillimeter wave, microwave and radiowave spectrometers; magnetic resonance spectrometers, auxiliary equipment, and techniques

07.57.Ty Infrared spectrometers, auxiliary equipment, and techniques

07.60.-j Optical instruments, equipment, and techniques

***** Optical sources, see 42.72

***** Optical elements, devices, and systems 42.79

***** Optoelecctronic devices 85.60

***** Optical telescopes, see 95.55

07.60.Dq Photometers, radiometers, and colorimeters

07.60.Fs Polarimeters and ellipsometers

07.60.Hv Refractometers and reflectometers

07.60.Ly Interferometers

07.60.Pb Conventional optical microscopes: (for near-field scanning optical microscopes, see 07.79.B)

07.60.Rd Visible and ultraviolet spectrometers

07.60.Vg Fiber-optic instruments (see also 42.81 Fiber optics)

07.64.+z Acoustic instruments, equipment, and techniques: (see also Acoustic Appendix)

07.68.+m Photography, photographic instruments and techniques; xerography

07.75.+h Mass spectrometers and related techniques

07.77.-n Atomic, molecular, and charged-particle sources and detectors

07.77.Gx Atomic and molecular beam sources and detectors

07.77.Ka Charged-particle beam sources and detectors

07.78.+s Electron, positron, and ion microscopes, electron diffractometers, and related techniques

07.79.-v Scanning probe microscopes: components and techniques

07.79.Cz Scanning tunneling microscopes

07.79.Fc Near-field scanning optical microscopes

07.79.Lh Atomic force microscopes

07.79.Pk Magnetic force microscopes

07.79.Sp Friction force microscopes

07.81.+a Electron, ion spectrometers, and related techniques

07.85.-m X- and gamma-ray instruments and techniques

07.85.Fv X- and gamma-ray sources, mirrors, gratings, and detectors

07.85.Jy Diffractometers

07.85.Nc X- and gamma-ray spectrometers

07.85.Qe Synchrotron radiation instrumentation

07.85,Tt X-ray microscopes

07.87.+v Spaceborne and space research instruments, apparatus, and components (satellites, space vehicles, etc.)

07.88.+y Instruments for environmental pollution measurements

07.89.+b Environmental effects on instruments (e.g., radiation and pollution effects)

07.90.+c Other topics in instruments, apparatus, components, and techniques common to several branches of physics and astronomy (restricted to new topics in section 07)