revised 11/99

1999 PACS, 60. - 69.

Summary of Scheme

61. Structure of Solids and Liquids; Crystallography (for surface structure, see 68.35.B; for thin film structure, see 68.55.J)
61.10.-i X-ray diffraction and scattering (for diffractometers, see
61.10.Dp Theories of diffraction and scattering
61.10.Eq X-ray scattering (including small-angle scattering)
61.10.Ht X-ray absorption spectroscopy: EXAFS, NEXAFS, XANES, etc.
61.10.Kw X-ray reflectometry (surfaces, interfaces, films)
61.10.Nz Single-crystal and powder diffraction
61.12.-q Neutron diffraction and scattering
61.12.Bt Theories of diffraction and scattering
61.12.Ex Neutron scattering techniques (including small-angle scattering)
61.12.Ha Neutron reflectrometry
61.12.Ld Single-crystal and powder diffraction
61.14.-x Electron diffraction and scattering
61.14.Dc Theories of diffraction and scattering
61.14.Hg Low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) and reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED)
61.14.Lj Convergent-beam electron diffraction, selected-area electron diffraction, nanodiffraction
61.14.Nm Electron holography
61.14.Qp X-ray photoelectron diffraction
61.16.-d Electron, ion, and scanning probe microscopy (for electron microscopy of crystal defects, see 61.72.F)
61.16.Bg Transmission, reflection and scanning electron microscopy (including EBIC)
61.16.Ch Scanning probe microscopy: scanning tunneling, atomic force, scanning optical, magnetic force, etc.
61.16.Fk Field emission and field-ion microscopy
***** EPR and NMR methods for defect structures, see 61.72.H
61.16.Ms Scanning Auger microscopy, photoelectron microscopy
61.18.-j Other methods of structure determination
61.18.Bn Atom, molecule, and ion scattering
61.18.Fs Magnetic resonance techniques; Moessbauer spectroscopy
61.20.-p Structure of liquids
61.20.Gy Theory and models of liquid structure
61.20.Ja Computer simulation of liquid structure
61.20.Lc Time-dependent properties; relaxation (for glass transitions, see 64.70.P)
61.20.Ne Structure of simple liquids
61.20.Qg Structure of associated liquids: electrolytes, molten salts, etc.
61.25.-f Studies of specific liquid structures
61.25.Bi Liquid noble gases
61.25.Em Molecular liquids
61.25.Hq Macromolecular and polymer solutions; polymer melts; swelling
61.25.Mv Liquid metals and alloys
61.30.-v Liquid crystals (see also 64.70.M Transitions in liquid crystals)
61.30.Cz Theory and models of liquid crystal structure
61.30.Eb Experimental determinations of smectic, nematic, cholesteric, and other structures
61.30.Gd Orientational order of liquid crystals; electric and magnetic field effects on order
61.30.Jf Defects in liquid crystals
61.41.+e Polymers, elastomers, and plastics (for materials synthesis, treatments, testing and analysis see 81.05.L; for rheology of polymers, see 83; for biopolymers, see 87.15)
61.43.-j Disordered solids
61.43.Bn Structural modeling: serial-addition models, computer simulation
61.43.Dq Amorphous semiconductors, metals, and alloys
61.43.Er Other amorphous solids
61.43.Fs Glasses
61.43.Gt Powders, porous materials
61.43.Hv Fractals; macroscopic aggregates (including diffusion-limited aggregates)
61.44.-n Semi-periodic solids
61.44.Br Quasicrystals
61.44.Fw Incommensurate crystals
61.46.+w Clusters, nanoparticles, and nanocrystalline materials (see also 36.40 Atomic and molecular clusters)
61.48.+c Fullerenes and fullerene-related materials
61.50.-f Crystalline state
61.50.Ah Theory of crystal structure, crystal symmetry; calculations and modeling
***** Crystal growth, see 81.10
61.50.Ks Crystallographic aspects of phase transformations; pressure effects (see also 81.30.H)
61.50.Lt Crystal binding; cohesive energy
61.50.Nw Crystal stoichiometry
61.66.-f Structure of specific crystalline solids (for surface structure, see 68.35.B)
61.66.Bi Elemental solids
61.66.Dk Alloys
61.66.Fn Inorganic compounds
61.66.Hq Organic compounds
61.68.+n Crystallographic databases
61.72.-y Defects and impurities in crystals; microstructure (for radiation induced defects, see 61.80; for defects in surfaces, interfaces and thin films, see 68.35.D and 68.55.L; see also 85.40.R Impurity doping, diffusion and ion implantation technology)
61.72.Bb Theories and models of crystal defects
61.72.Cc Kinetics of defect formation and annealing
61.72.Dd Experimental determination of defects by diffraction and scattering
61.72.Ff Direct observation of dislocations and other defects (etch pits, decoration, electron microscopy, x-ray topography, etc.)
61.72.Hh Indirect evidence of dislocations and other defects (resistivity, slip, creep, strains, internal friction, EPR, NMR, etc.)
61.72.Ji Point defects (vacancies, interstitials, color centers, etc.) and defect clusters
61.72.Lk Linear defects: dislocations, disclinations
61.72.Mm Grain and twin boundaries
61.72.Nn Stacking faults and other planar or extended defects
61.72.Qq Microscopic defects (voids, inclusions, etc.)
61.72.Ss Impurity concentration, distribution, and gradients (for impurities in thin films, see 68.55.L; see also 66.30.J Diffusion of impurities)
61.72.Tt Doping and impurity implantation in germanium and silicon
61.72.Vv Doping and impurity implantation in III-V and II-VI semiconductors
61.72.Ww Doping and impurity implantation in other materials
61.72.Yx Interaction between different crystal defects; gettering effect
61.80.-x Physical radiation effects, radiation damage (for radiation chemistry, see 82.50; for biological effects of radiation, see 87.50)
***** Radiation treatments, see 81.40.W 61.80.Az Theory and models of radiation effects
61.80.Ba Ultraviolet, visible, and infrared radiation effects (including laser radiation)
61.80.Cb X-ray effects
61.80.Ed gamma ray effects
61.80.Fe Electrons and positron radiation effects
61.80.Hg Neutron radiation effects
61.80.Jh Ion radiation effects (for ion implantation, see 61.72.T, V, W)
61.80.Lj Atom and molecule irradiation effects
***** Channeling, blocking, and energy loss of particles, see 61.85
61.82.-d Radiation effects on specific materials
61.82.Bg Metals and alloys
61.82.Fk Semiconductors
61.82.Ms Insulators
61.82.Pv Polymers, organic compounds
61.82.Rx Nanocrystalline materials
61.85.+p Channeling phenomena (blocking, energy loss, etc.)
61.90.+d Other topics in structure of solids and liquids (restricted to new topics in section 61)
62. Mechanical and acoustical properties of condensed matter (for mechanical and acoustical properties of interfaces and thin films, see 68.35.G, 68.45.N and 68.60.B; for mechanical properties related to treatment conditions, see 81.70.J, L, N in material science; for mechanical properties of rocks and minerals, see 91.60)
62.10.+s Mechanical properties of liquids (for viscosity of liquids, see 66.20)
62.20.-x Mechanical properties of solids
62.20.Dc Elasticity, elastic constants
62.20.Fe Deformation and plasticity (including yield, ductility, and superplasticity)
62.20.Hg Creep
62.20.Mk Fatigue, brittleness, fracture, and cracks
62.20.Qp Tribology and hardness (see 46.55 in Continuum mechanics of solids; see also 83.50.L in rheology)
62.30.+d Mechanical and elastic waves; vibrations (see also 43.40 Structural acoustics and vibration; 46.40 in continuum mechanics of solids)
62.40.+i Anelasticity, internal friction, stress relaxation, and mechanical resonances
***** Thermomechanical effects, see 65.70
***** Magnetomechanical effects, see 75.80
***** Piezoelectric effects, see 77.65
***** Elastooptical effects, see 78.20.H
62.50.+p High-pressure and shock-wave effects in solids and liquids (for high pressure apparatus and techniques see 07.35)
62.60.+v Acoustical properties of liquids
***** Lattice dynamics, phonons, see 63
***** Second sound in quantum fluids, see 67.40.P
62.65.+k Acoustical properties of solids
***** Magnetoacoustic effects, see 72.55 and 73.50.R
***** Acoustoelectric effects, see 72.50, 73.50.R, and 77.65.D
***** Acoustooptical effects, see 78.20.H
62.80.+f Ultrasonic relaxation (see also 43.35.F Ultrasonic relaxation processes in liquids and solids in acoustics appendix; for ultrasonic attenuation in superconductors, see 74.25.L)
62.90.+k Other topics in mechanical and acoustical properties of condensed matter (restricted to new topics in section 62)
63. Lattice Dynamics (see also 78.30 Infrared and Raman spectra; for surface and interface vibrations, see 68.35.J and 68.45.K)
63.10.+a General theory
63.20.-e Phonons in crystal lattices (for phonons in superconductors, see 74.25.K)
63.20.Dj Phonon states and bands, normal modes, and phonon dispersion
63.20.Kr Phonon-electron and phonon-phonon interactions
63.20.Ls Phonon interactions with other quasiparticles
63.20.Mt Phonon-defect interactions
63.20.Pw Localized modes
63.20.Ry Anharmonic lattice modes
63.22.+m Phonons in low-dimensional structures and small particles
63.50.+x Vibrational states in disordered systems
63.70.+h Statistical mechanics of lattice vibrations and displacive phase transitions
63.90.+t Other topics in lattice dynamics (restricted to new topics in section 63)
64. Equations of State, Phase Equilibria, and Phase Transitions (see also 82.60 Chemical thermodynamics)
64.10.+h General theory of equations of state and phase equilibria (see also 05.70.C Thermodynamic functions and equations of state)
64.30.+t Equations of state of specific substances
64.60.-i General studies of phase transitions (see also 63.75 Statistical mechanics of displacive phase transitions; for critical phenomena in quantum fluids, in solid surfaces and interfaces, and in magnetism, see 67, 68.35.R, and 75.40, respectively)
64.60.Ak Renormalization-group, fractal, and percolation studies of phase transitions (see also 61.43.H Fractals; macroscopic aggregates)
64.60.Cn Order-disorder transformations; statistical mechanics of model systems
64.60.Fr Equilibrium properties near critical points, critical exponents
64.60.Ht Dynamic critical phenomena
64.60.Kw Multicritical points
64.60.My Metastable phases
64.60.Qb Nucleation (see also 82.60.N Thermodynamics of nucleation)
64.70.-p Specific phase transitions
64.70.Dv Solid-liquid transitions
64.70.Fx Liquid-vapor transitions
64.70.Hz Solid-vapor transitions
64.70.Ja Liquid-liquid transitions
64.70.Kb Solid-solid transitions (see also 61.50.K Crystallographic aspects of polymorphic and order-disorder transformations; 75.30.K and 77.80.B for magnetic and ferroelectric transitions, respectively; 81.30 - in material science)
64.70.Md Transitions in liquid crystals
64.70.Pf Glass transitions
64.70.Rh Commensurate-incommensurate transitions
64.75.+g Solubility, segregation, and mixing; phase separation
(see also 82.60.L Thermodynamics of solutions)
64.90.+b Other topics in equations of state, phase equilibria, and phase transitions (restricted to new topics in section 64)
65. Thermal properties of condensed matter (see also 05.70 Thermodynamics and 44 Heat transfer; for thermodynamic properties of quantum fluids and solids, see 67; for thermal properties of thin films, see 68.60.D; for nonelectronic thermal conduction, see 66.60, 66.70; for thermal properties of rocks and minerals, see 91.60)
65.20.+w Heat capacities of liquids
65.40.+g Heat capacities of solids
(for specific heat of superconductors, see 74.25.B; for specific heat of magnetic systems, see 75.40.C)
65.50.+m Thermodynamic properties and entropy
65.70.+y Thermal expansion and density changes; thermomechanical effects
65.90.+i Other topics in thermal properties of condensed matter (restricted to new topics in section 65)
66. Transport Properties of Condensed Matter (nonelectronic)
66.10.-x Diffusion and ionic conduction in liquids
66.10.Cb Diffusion and thermal diffusion (for osmosis, see also
66.10.Ed Ionic conduction
66.20.+d Viscosity of liquids; diffusive momentum transport
66.30.-h Diffusion in solids (for surface and interface diffusion, see 68.35.F)
66.30.Dn Theory of diffusion and ionic conduction in solids
66.30.Fq Self-diffusion in metals, semimetals, and alloys
66.30.Hs Self-diffusion and ionic conduction in nonmetals
66.30.Jt Diffusion of impurities
66.30.Lw Diffusion of other defects
66.30.Ny Chemical interdiffusion; diffusion barriers
66.30.Qa Electromigration
66.35.+a Quantum tunneling of defects
66.60.+a Thermal conduction in nonmetallic liquids (for thermal conduction in liquid metals, see 72.15.C)
66.70.+f Nonelectronic thermal conduction and heat-pulse propagation in solids; thermal waves (for thermal conduction in metals and alloys, see 72.15.C and 72.15.E)
66.90.+r Other topics in nonelectronic transport properties of condensed matter (restricted to new topics in section 66)
67. Quantum Fluids and Solids; Liquid and Solid Helium (see also 05.30 Quantum statistical mechanics)
67.20.+k Quantum effects on the structure and dynamics of nondegenerate fluids (e.g., normal phase liquid helium-4)
67.40.-w Boson degeneracy and superfluidity of helium-4
67.40.Bz Phenomenology and two-fluid models
67.40.Db Quantum statistical theory; ground state, elementary excitations
67.40.Fd Dynamics of relaxation phenomena
67.40.Hf Hydrodynamics in specific geometries, flow in narrow channels
67.40.Jg Ions in liquid helium-4
67.40.Kh Thermodynamic properties
67.40.Mj First sound
67.40.Pm Transport processes, second and other sounds, and thermal counterflow; Kapitza resistance
67.40.Rp Films and weak link transport
67.40.Vs Vortices and turbulence
67.40.Yv Impurities and other defects
67.55.-s Normal phase of liquid helium-3
67.55.Cx Thermodynamic properties
67.55.Fa Hydrodynamics
67.55.Hc Transport properties
67.55.Ig Ions in normal liquid helium-3
67.55.Jd Collective modes
67.55.Lf Impurities
67.57.-z Superfluid phase of liquid helium-3
67.57.Bc Thermodynamic properties
67.57.De Superflow and hydrodynamics
67.57.Fg Textures and vortices
67.57.Gh Ions in superfluid helium-3
67.57.Hi Transport properties
67.57.Jj Collective modes
67.57.Lm Spin dynamics
67.57.Np Behavior near interfaces
67.57.Pq Impurities
67.60.-g Mixed systems; liquid helium-3, helium-4 mixtures
67.60.Dm He I - helium-3
67.60.Fp He II - helium-3
67.60.Hr Dilute superfluid helium-3 in He II
67.60.Js Ions in liquid helium-3, helium-4 mixtures
67.65.+z Spin-polarized hydrogen and helium
67.70.+n Films (including physical adsorption)
67.80.-s Solid helium and related quantum crystals
67.80.Cx Structure, lattice dynamics, and sound propagation
67.80.Gb Thermal properties
67.80.Jd Magnetic properties and nuclear magnetic resonance
67.80.Mg Defects, impurities, and diffusion
67.90.+z Other topics in quantum fluids and solids; liquid and solid helium (restricted to new topics in section 67)
68. Surfaces and Interfaces; Thin Films and Whiskers (structure and nonelectronic properties)
68.10.-m Fluid surfaces and fluid-fluid interfaces
68.10.Cr Surface energy (surface tension, interface tension, angle of contact, etc.)
68.10.Et Interface elasticity, viscosity, and viscoelasticity
68.10.Gw Interface activity, spreading
68.10.Jy Kinetics (evaporation, adsorption, condensation, catalysis, etc.) (see also
82.65 Surface and interface chemistry)
68.15.+e Liquid thin films
68.18.+p Langmuir-Blodgett films (for methods of film deposition, see 81.15.L)
68.35.-p Solid surfaces and solid-solid interfaces
68.35.Bs Surface structure and topography
68.35.Ct Interface structure and roughness
68.35.Dv Composition; defects and impurities
68.35.Fx Diffusion; interface formation (see also 66.30 Diffusion in solids)
68.35.Gy Mechanical and acoustical properties; adhesion
68.35.Ja Surface and interface dynamics vibrations
68.35.Md Surface energy; thermodynamic properties (see also 82.65.D Thermodynamics of surfaces and interfaces)
68.35.Rh Phase transitions and critical phenomena
68.35.Wm Other nonelectronic properties
68.45.-v Solid-fluid interfaces
68.45.Da Adsorption and desorption kinetics; evaporation and condensation (for chemisorption, see 82.65.M)
68.45.Gd Wetting
68.45.Kg Dynamics; vibrations
68.45.Nj Mechanical and acoustical properties
68.45.Ws Other nonelectronic properties
68.55.-a Thin film structure and morphology (for methods of thin film deposition, film growth and epitaxy, see 81.15)
68.55.Jk Structure and morphology; thickness
68.55.Ln Defects and impurities: doping, implantation, distribution, concentration, etc. (for diffusion of impurities, see 66.30)
68.55.Nq Composition and phase identification
68.60.-p Physical properties of thin films, nonelectronic
68.60.Bs Mechanical and acoustical properties
68.60.Dv Thermal stability; thermal effects
68.60.Wm Other nonelectronic physical properties
68.65.+g Low-dimensional structure (superlattices, quantum well structures, multilayers): structure, and nonelectronic properties
***** Growth of low-dimensional structures, see 81.15
68.70.+w Whiskers and dendrites (growth, structure, and nonelectronic properties)
68.75.+x Thick films (growth, structure, and non-electronic properties)
68.90.+g Other topics in structure, and nonelectronic properties of surfaces and interfaces; thin films and whiskers (restricted to new topics in section 68)