revised 11/98

1999 PACS, 70. - 79.

Summary of Scheme

71. Electronic Structure (see also 73.20 Surface and interface electron states)
71.10.-w Theories and models of many electron systems
71.10.Ay Fermi-liquid theory and other phenomenological models
71.10.Ca Electron gas, Fermi gas
71.10.Fd Lattice fermion models (Hubbard model, etc.)
71.10.Hf Non-Fermi-liquid ground states, electron phase diagrams and phase transitions in model systems
71.10.Li Excited states and pairing interactions in model systems
71.10.Pm Fermions in reduced dimensions (anyons, composite fermions, Luttinger liquid, etc.) (for anyon mechanism in superconductors, see 74.20.M)
71.15.-m Methods of electronic structure calculations
71.15.Ap Plane-wave methods (including augmented plane-wave method)
71.15.Cr Scattering methods
71.15.Fv Atomic- and molecular-orbital methods (including tight binding approximation, valence-band method, etc.)
71.15.Hx Pseudopotential method
71.15.La Atomic sphere approximation methods
71.15.Mb Density functional theory, local density approximation
71.15.Nc Total energy and cohesive energy calculations
71.15.Pd Molecular dynamics calculations (Car-Parrinello) and other numerical simulations
71.15.Rf Relativistic effects
71.18.+y Fermi surface: calculations and measurements; effective mass, g factor
71.20.-b Electron density of states and band structure of crystalline solids (for electronic structure of superconductors, see 74.25.J)
71.20.Be Transition metals and alloys
71.20.Dg Alkali and alkaline earth metals
71.20.Eh Rare earth metals and alloys
71.20.Gj Other metals and alloys
71.20.Lp Intermetallic compounds
71.20.Mq Elemental semiconductors
71.20.Nr Semiconductor compounds
71.20.Ps Other inorganic compounds
71.20.Rv Polymers and organic compounds
71.20.Tx Fullerenes and related materials; intercalation compounds
***** Photonic band-gap materials, see
71.22.+i Electronic structure of liquid metals and semiconductors and their alloys
71.23.-k Electronic structure of disordered solids
71.23.An Theories and models; localized states
71.23.Cq Amorphous semiconductors, metallic glasses, glasses
71.23.Ft Quasicrystals
71.24.+q Electronic structure of clusters and nanoparticles
71.27.+a Strongly correlated electron systems; heavy fermions
71.28.+d Narrow-band systems; intermediate-valence solids (for magnetic aspects, see 75.20.H and 75.30.M)
71.30.+h Metal-insulator transitions and other electronic transitions
71.35.-y Excitons and related phenomena
71.35.Aa Frenkel excitons and self-trapped excitons
71.35.Cc Intrinsic properties of excitons; optical absorption spectra
71.35.Ee Electron-hole drops and electron-hole plasma
71.35.Gg Exciton-mediated interactions
71.35.Ji Excitons in magnetic fields; magnetoexcitons
71.35.Lk Collective effects (Bose effects, phase space filling, and excitonic phase transitions)
71.36.+c Polaritons (including photon-phonon and photon-magnon interactions)
71.38.+i Polarons and electron-phonon interactions (see also 63.20.K Phonon- electron interactions in lattices)
71.45.-d Collective effects
71.45.Gm Exchange, correlation, dielectric and magnetic functions, plasmons
71.45.Lr Charge-density-wave systems (see also 75.30.F Spin-density waves)
***** Localized states, see 71.23.A
71.55.-i Impurity and defect levels
71.55.Ak Metals, semimetals, and alloys
71.55.Cn Elemental semiconductors
71.55.Eq III-V semiconductors
71.55.Gs II-VI semiconductors
71.55.Ht Other nonmetals
71.55.Jv Disordered structures; amorphous and glassy solids
71.60.+z Positron states (see also 78.70.B Positron annihilation)
71.70.-d Level splitting and interactions (see also 73.20 Surface and interface electron states, 75.30.E Exchange and superexchange interactions)
71.70.Ch Crystal and ligand fields
71.70.Di Landau levels
71.70.Ej Spin orbit coupling, Zeeman and Stark splitting, Jahn-Teller effect
71.70.Fk Strain-induced splitting
71.70.Gm Exchange interactions
71.70.Jp Nuclear states and interactions
71.90.+q Other topics in electronic structure (restricted to new topics in section 71)
72. Electronic transport in condensed matter (for electronic transport in surfaces, interfaces, and thin films, see 73; for electrical properties related to treatment conditions, see 81.40.R)
72.10.-d Theory of electronic transport; scattering mechanisms
72.10.Bg General formulation of transport theory
72.10.Di Scattering by phonons, magnons, and other nonlocalized excitations (see also 71.45 Collective effects)
72.10.Fk Scattering by point defects, dislocations, surfaces, and other imperfections (including Kondo effect)
72.15.-v Electronic conduction in metals and alloys
72.15.Cz Electrical and thermal conduction in amorphous and liquid metals and alloys
72.15.Eb Electrical and thermal conduction in crystalline metals and alloys
72.15.Gd Galvanomagnetic and other magnetotransport effects
72.15.Jf Thermoelectric and thermomagnetic effects
72.15.Lh Relaxation times and mean free paths
72.15.Nj Collective modes (e.g., in one-dimensional conductors)
72.15.Qm Scattering mechanisms and Kondo effect (see also 75.20.H Local moments in compounds and alloys)
72.15.Rn Localization effects (Anderson or weak localization)
72.20.-i Conductivity phenomena in semiconductors and insulators (see also 66.70 Nonelectronic thermal conduction in nonmetallic solids)
72.20.Dp General theory, scattering mechanisms
72.20.Ee Mobility edges; hopping transport
72.20.Fr Low-field transport and mobility; piezoresistance
72.20.Ht High-field and nonlinear effects
72.20.Jv Charge carriers: generation, recombination, lifetime, and trapping
72.20.My Galvanomagnetic and other magnetotransport effects
72.20.Pa Thermoelectric and thermomagnetic effects
72.30.+q High-frequency effects; plasma effects
72.40.+w Photoconduction and photovoltaic effects
72.50.+b Acoustoelectric effects
72.55.+s Magnetoacoustic effects (see also 75.80 Magnetomechanical effects)
72.60.+g Mixed conductivity and conductivity transitions
72.70.+m Noise processes and phenomena
72.80.-r Conductivity of specific materials (for conductivity of metals and alloys, see 72.15)
72.80.Cw Elemental semiconductors
72.80.Ey III-V and II-VI semiconductors
72.80.Ga Transition-metal compounds
72.80.Jc Other crystalline inorganic semiconductors
72.80.Le Polymers; organic compounds (including organic semiconductors)
72.80.Ng Disordered solids
72.80.Ph Liquid semiconductors
72.80.Rj Fullerenes and related materials
72.80.Sk Insulators
72.80.Tm Composite materials
72.90.+y Other topics in electronic transport in condensed matter (restricted to new topics in section 72.)
73. Electronic Structure and Electrical Properties of Surfaces, Interfaces, and Thin Films (for electronic structure and electrical properties of superconducting films, see 74.25 and 74.76)
73.20.-r Surface and interface electron states
73.20.At Surface states, band structure, electron density of states
73.20.Dx Electron states in low-dimensional structures (superlattices, quantum well structures and multilayers)
73.20.Fz Weak or Anderson localization
73.20.Hb Impurity and defect levels; energy states of adsorbed species
73.20.Jc Delocalization processes
73.20.Mf Collective excitations (including plasmons and other charge-density excitations)
73.23.-b Mesoscopic systems
73.23.Ad Ballistic transport
73.23.Hk Coulomb blockade; single-electron tunneling
73.23.Ra Persistent currents
73.25.+i Surface conductivity and carrier phenomena
73.30.+y Surface double layers, Schottky barriers, and work functions
73.40.-c Electronic transport in interface structures
73.40.Cg Contact resistance, contact potential
73.40.Ei Rectification
73.40.Gk Tunneling
73.40.Hm Quantum Hall effect (integer and fractional)
73.40.Jn Metal-to-metal contacts
73.40.Kp III-V semiconductor-to-semiconductor contacts, p-n junctions, and heterojunctions
73.40.Lq Other semiconductor-to-semiconductor contacts, p-n junctions, and heterojunctions
73.40.Mr Semiconductor-electrolyte contacts
73.40.Ns Metal-nonmetal contacts
73.40.Qv Metal-insulator-semiconductor structures (including semiconductor- to-insulator)
73.40.Rw Metal-insulator-metal structures
73.40.Sx Metal-semiconductor-metal structures
73.40.Ty Semiconductor-insulator-semiconductor structures
73.40.Vz Semiconductor-metal-semiconductor structures
73.50.-h Electronic transport phenomena in thin films and low-dimensional structures
73.50.Bk General theory, scattering mechanisms
73.50.Dn Low-field transport and mobility; piezoresistance
73.50.Fq High-field and nonlinear effects
73.50.Gr Charge carriers: generation, recombination, lifetime, trapping, mean free paths
73.50.Jt Galvanomagnetic and other magnetotransport effects (including thermomagnetic effects)
73.50.Lw Thermoelectric effects
73.50.Mx High-frequency effects; plasma effects
73.50.Pz Photoconduction and photovoltaic effects
73.50.Rb Acoustoelectric and magnetoacoustic effects
73.50.Td Noise processes and phenomena
73.61.-r Electrical properties of specific thin films and layer structures (multilayers, superlattices, quantum wells, wires, and dots) (for optical properties of thin films, see 78.20 and 78.66; for magnetic properties of thin films, see 75.70)
73.61.At Metal and metallic alloys
73.61.Cw Elemental semiconductors
73.61.Ey III-V semiconductors
73.61.Ga II-VI semiconductors
73.61.Jc Amorphous semiconductors; glasses
73.61.Le Other inorganic semiconductors
73.61.Ng Insulators
73.61.Ph Polymers; organic compounds
73.61.Tm Nanocrystalline materials
73.61.Wp Fullerenes and related materials
73.90.+f Other topics in electronic structure and electrical properties of surfaces, interfaces, and thin films (Restricted to new topics in section 73)
74. Superconductivity
74.10.+v Occurrence, potential candidates
74.20.-z Theories and models of superconducting state
74.20.De Phenomenological theories (two-fluid, Ginzburg-Landau, etc.)
74.20.Fg BCS theory and its development
74.20.Mn Nonconventional mechanisms (spin fluctuations, polarons, and bipolarons, resonating valence bond model, anyon mechanism, marginal Fermi liquid, Luttinger liquid, etc.)
74.25.-q General properties; correlations between physical properties in normal and superconducting states
74.25.Bt Thermodynamic properties
74.25.Dw Superconductivity phase diagrams
74.25.Fy Transport properties (electric and thermal conductivity, thermoelectric effects, etc.)
74.25.Gz Optical properties
74.25.Ha Magnetic properties
74.25.Jb Electronic structure
74.25.Kc Phonons
74.25.Ld Mechanical and acoustical properties, elasticity, and ultrasonic attenuation
74.25.Nf Response to electromagnetic fields (nuclear magnetic resonance, surface impedance, etc.)
74.40.+k Fluctuations (noise, chaos, nonequilibrium superconductivity, localization, etc.)
74.50.+r Proximity effects, weak links, tunneling phenomena, and Josephson effects
74.55.+h Type-I superconductivity
74.60.-w Type-II superconductivity
74.60.Ec Mixed state, critical fields, and surface sheath
74.60.Ge Flux pinning; flux creep, and flux-line lattice dynamics
74.60.Jg Critical currents
74.62.-c Transition temperature variations
74.62.Bf Effects of material synthesis, crystal structure, and chemical composition
74.62.Dh Effects of crystal defects, doping and substitution
74.62.Fj Pressure effects
74.62.Yb Other effects
74.70.-b Superconducting materials (excluding high-T sub c compounds)
74.70.Ad Metals; alloys and binary compounds (including A15, Laves phases, etc.)
74.70.Dd Ternary, quaternary and multinary compounds (including Chevrel phases, borocarbides ets.)
74.70.Kn Organic superconductors
74.70.Tx Heavy-fermion superconductors
74.70.Wz Fullerenes and related materials
74.72.-h High-T sub c compounds
74.72.Bk Y-based cuprates
74.72.Dn La-based cuprates
74.72.Fq Tl-based cuprates
74.72.Gr Hg-base cuprates
74.72.Hs Bi-based cuprates
74.72.Jt Other cuprates
74.76.-w Superconducting films
74.76.Bz High-T sub c films
74.76.Db Conventional superconducting films
74.80.-g Spatially inhomogeneous structures
74.80.Bj Granular, melt-textured, and amorphous superconductors; powders
74.80.Dm Superconducting layer structures: superlattices, heterojunctions, and multilayers
74.80.Fp Point contacts; SN and SNS junctions
***** Superconducting devices, see
74.90.+n Other topics in superconductivity (restricted to new topics in section 74)
75. Magnetic Properties and Materials (see also 81.40.R Magnetic properties related to materials treatment; for magnetic properties of rocks and minerals, see 91.60.P)
75.10.-b General theory and models of magnetic ordering (see also 05.50 Ising problems)
75.10.Dg Crystal-field theory and spin Hamiltonians
75.10.Hk Classical spin models
75.10.Jm Quantized spin models
75.10.Lp Band and itinerant models
75.10.Nr Spin-glass and other random models
75.20.-g Diamagnetism and paramagnetism
75.20.Ck Nonmetals
75.20.En Metals and alloys
75.20.Hr Local moment in compounds and alloys; Kondo effect, valence fluctuations, heavy fermions (see also 72.15.Q Scattering mechanisms and Kondo effect in electronic transport)
75.25.+z Spin arrangements in magnetically ordered materials (including neutron and spin-polarized electron studies, synchrotron-source x-ray scattering, etc.)
75.30.-m Intrinsic properties of magnetically ordered materials (for critical point effects, see 75.40)
75.30.Cr Saturation moments and magnetic susceptibilities
75.30.Ds Spin waves (see also 76.50 Spin-wave resonance in magnetic resonances and relaxation)
75.30.Et Exchange and superexchange interactions (see also 71.70 Level splitting and interactions in electron states)
75.30.Fv Spin-density waves
75.30.Gw Magnetic anisotropy
75.30.Hx Magnetic impurity interactions
75.30.Kz Magnetic phase boundaries (including magnetic transitions, metamagnetism, etc.)
75.30.Mb Valence fluctuation, Kondo lattice, and heavy-fermion phenomena (for heavy fermion solids, see 71.28)
75.30.Pd Surface magnetism
75.30.Sg Magnetocaloric effect, magnetic cooling
75.30.Vn Colossal magnetoresistance
75.40.-s Critical-point effects, specific heats, short-range order (see also 65.40 Heat capacities)
75.40.Cx Static properties (order parameter, static susceptibility, heat capacities, critical exponents, etc.)
75.40.Gb Dynamic properties (dynamic susceptibility, spin waves, spin diffusion, dynamic scaling, etc.)
75.40.Mg Numerical simulation studies
75.45.+j Macroscopic quantum phenomena in magnetic systems
75.50.-y Studies of specific magnetic materials
75.50.Bb Fe and its alloys
75.50.Cc Other ferromagnetic metals and alloys
75.50.Dd Nonmetallic ferromagnetic materials
75.50.Ee Antiferromagnetics
75.50.Gg Ferrimagnetics
75.50.Kj Amorphous and nanocrystalline magnetic materials; quasicrystals
75.50.Lk Spin glasses and other random magnets
75.50.Mm Magnetic liquids
75.50.Pp Magnetic semiconductors
75.50.Ss Magnetic recording materials (see also 85.70 Magnetic devices)
75.50.Tt Fine-particle systems
75.50.Vv High coercivity materials
75.50.Ww Permanent magnets
75.50.Xx Molecular magnets
75.60.-d Domain effects, magnetization curves, and hysteresis
75.60.Ch Domain walls and domain structure (for magnetic bubbles, see 75.70.K)
75.60.Ej Magnetization curves, hysteresis, Barkhausen and related effects
75.60.Lr Magnetic aftereffects
75.60.Nt Magnetic annealing and temperature-hysteresis effects
75.70.-i Magnetic films and multilayers
75.70.Ak Magnetic properties of monolayers and thin films
75.70.Cn Interfacial magnetic properties (multilayers, magnetic quantum wells, superlattices, magnetic heterotructures)
75.70.Kw Domain structure (including magnetic bubbles)
75.70.Pa Giant magnetoresistance
75.80.+q Magnetomechanical and magnetoelectric effects, magnetostriction
***** Galvanomagnetic effects, see 72.15.G and 72.20.M
***** Magnetooptical effects, see 78.20.L
75.90.+w Other topics in magnetic properties and materials (restricted to new topics in section 75)
76. Magnetic Resonances and Relaxations in Condensed Matter; Mossbauer effect
76.20.+q General theory of resonances and relaxations
76.30.-v Electron paramagnetic resonance and relaxation
76.30.Da Ions and impurities: general
76.30.Fc Iron group (3d) ions and impurities (Ti-Cu)
76.30.He Platinum and palladium group (4d and 5d) ions and impurities (Zr-Ag and Hf-Au)
76.30.Kg Rare-earth ions and impurities
76.30.Lh Other ions and impurities
76.30.Mi Color centers and other defects
76.30.Pk Conduction electrons
76.30.Rn Free radicals
76.40.+b Diamagnetic and cyclotron resonances
76.50.+g Ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, and ferrimagnetic resonances; spin- wave resonance (see also 75.30.D Spin waves in magnetic properties and materials)
76.60.-k Nuclear magnetic resonance and relaxation
76.60.Cq Chemical and Knight shifts
76.60.Es Relaxation effects
76.60.Gv Quadrupole resonance
76.60.Jx Effects of internal magnetic fields
76.60.Lz Spin echoes
76.60.Pc NMR imaging
(for medical NMR imaging, see
76.70.-r Magnetic double resonances and cross effects
76.70.Dx Electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR), electron double resonance (ELDOR)
76.70.Fz Double nuclear magnetic resonance (DNMR), dynamical nuclear polarization
76.70.Hb Optical detected magnetic resonance (ODMR)
76.75.+i Muon spin rotation and relaxation
76.80.+y Mossbauer effect; other gamma-ray spectroscopy
***** Magnetic resonance spectrometers, 07.57.P
76.90.+d Other topics in magnetic resonances and relaxations (restricted to new topics in section 76)
77. Dielectrics, piezoelectrics, and ferroelectrics and their properties (for conductivity phenomena, see 72.20 and 72.80; for dielectric properties related to treatment conditions, see 81.40.T)
77.22.-d Dielectric properties of solids and liquids
77.22.Ch Permittivity (dielectric function)
77.22.Ej Polarization and deplorization
77.22.Gm Dielectric loss and relaxation
77.22.Jp Dielectric breakdown and space-charge effects
77.55.+f Dielectric thin films
77.65.-j Piezoelectricity and electromechanical effects
77.65.Bn Piezoelectric and electrostrictive constants
77.65.Dq Acoustoelectric effects and surface acoustic waves (SAW) in piezoelectrics
77.65.Fs Electromechanical resonance; quartz resonators
77.65.Ly Strain-induced piezoelectric fields
77.70.+a Pyroelectric and electrocaloric effects
77.80.-e Ferroelectricity and antiferroelectricity
77.80.Bh Phase transitions and Curie point
77.80.Dj Domain structure; hysteresis
77.80.Fm Switching phenomena
77.84.-s Dielectric, piezoelectric, ferroelectric, and antiferroelectric materials (for nonlinear optical materials, see
77.84.Bw Elements, oxides, nitrides, borides, carbides, chalcogenides, etc.
77.84.Dy Niobates, titanates, tantalates, PZT ceramics, etc.
77.84.Fa KDP- and TGS-type crystals
77.84.Jd Polymers; organic compounds
77.84.Lf Composite materials
77.84.Nh Liquids, emulsions, and suspensions; liquid crystals
77.90.+k Other topics in dielectrics, piezoelectrics, and ferroelectrics and their properties (restricted to new topics in section 77)
78. Optical Properties, Condensed-matter Spectroscopy and Other Interactions of Radiation and Particles with Condensed Matter
78.20.-e Optical properties of bulk materials and thin films (for optical properties related to materials treatment, see
81.40.T; for optical materials, see 42.70; for optical properties of rocks and minerals, see 91.60.M)
78.20.Bh Theory, models, and numerical simulation
78.20.Ci Optical constants (including refractive index, complex dielectric constant, absorption, reflection and transmission coefficients, emissivity)
78.20.Ek Optical activity
78.20.Fm Birefringence
78.20.Hp Piezo-, elasto-, acoustooptical, and photoacoustic effects
78.20.Jq Electrooptical effects
78.20.Ls Magnetooptical effects
78.20.Nv Thermooptical and photothermal effects
***** Nonlinear optical properties, see 42.65 78.30.-j Infrared and Raman spectra (for vibrational states in crystals and disordered systems, see 63.20 and 63.50, respectively)
78.30.Am Elemental semiconductors and insulators
78.30.Cp Liquids
78.30.Er Solid metals and alloys
78.30.Fs III-V and II-VI semiconductors
78.30.Hv Other nonmetallic inorganics
78.30.Er Solid metals and alloys
78.30.Jw Organic compounds, polymers
78.30.Ly Disordered solids
78.30.Na Fullerenes and related materials
78.35.+c Brillouin and Rayleigh scattering; other light scattering (for Raman scattering, see 78.30)
78.40.-q Absorption and reflection spectra; visible and ultraviolet (for infrared spectra, see 78.30)
78.40.Dw Liquids
78.40.Fy Semiconductors
78.40.Ha Other nonmetallic inorganics
78.40.Kc Metals, semimetals, and alloys
78.40.Me Organic compounds and polymers
78.40.Pg Disordered solids
78.40.Ri Fullerenes and related materials
78.45.+h Stimulated emission (see also 42.55 Lasers)
78.47.+p Time-resolved optical spectroscopies and other ultrafast optical measurements in condensed matter (see also 42.65.R - in nonlinear optics)
***** Impurity and defect absorption in solids, see 78.30 and 78.40
78.55.-m Photoluminescence
78.55.Ap Elemental semiconductors
78.55.Bq Liquids
78.55.Cr III-V semiconductors
78.55.Et II-VI semiconductors
78.55.Fv Solid alkali halides
78.55.Hx Other solid inorganic materials
78.55.Kz Solid organic materials
78.55.Mb Porous materials
78.60.-b Other luminescence and radiative recombination
78.60.Fi Electroluminescence
78.60.Hk Cathodoluminescence, ionoluminescence
78.60.Kn Thermoluminescence
78.60.Mq Sonoluminescence, triboluminescence
78.60.Ps Chemiluminescence (see also 82.40.T Chemiluminescence and chemical laser kinetics)
78.66.-w Optical properties of specific thin films, surfaces, and low-dimensional structures
78.66.Bz Metals and metallic alloys
78.66.Db Elemental semiconductors and insulators
78.66.Fd III-V semiconductors
78.66.Hf II-VI semiconductors
78.66.Jg Amorphous semiconductors; glasses; nanocrystalline materials
78.66.Li Other semiconductors
78.66.Nk Insulators
78.66.Qn Polymers; organic compounds
78.66.Sq Composite materials
78.66.Tr Fullerenes and related materials
78.66.Vs Small particles
78.70.-g Interactions of particles and radiation with matter
78.70.Bj Positron annihilation (for positron states, see 71.60)
78.70.Ck X-ray scattering
78.70.Dm X-ray absorption spectra
78.70.En X-ray emission spectra and fluorescence
78.70.Gq Microwave and radio-frequency interactions
78.70.Nx Neutron inelastic scattering
78.90.+t Other topics in optical properties, condensed matter spectroscopy and other interactions of particles and radiation with condensed matter (restricted to new topics in section 78)
79. Electron and Ion Emission by Liquids and Solids; Impact Phenomena
79.20.-m Impact phenomena (including electron spectra and sputtering) (see also
61.80 Radiation damage and other structural irradiation effects)
79.20.Ap Theory of impact phenomena; numerical simulation
79.20.Ds Laser-beam impact phenomena
79.20.Fv Electron impact: Auger emission
79.20.Hx Electron impact: secondary emission
79.20.Kz Other electron-impact emission phenomena
79.20.La Photon- and electron-stimulated desorption
79.20.Mb Positron emission
79.20.Rf Atomic, molecular, and ion beam impact and interactions with surfaces
***** Electron and ion channeling, see 61.85 79.40.+z Thermionic emission
79.60.-i Photoemission and photoelectron spectra
79.60.Bm Clean metal, semiconductor, and insulator surfaces
79.60.Dp Adsorbed layers and thin films
79.60.Fr Polymers; organic compounds
79.60.Ht Disordered structures
79.60.Jv Interfaces; heterostructures; nanostructures
79.70.+q Field emission, ionization, evaporation, and desorption
79.75.+g Exoelectron emission
79.90.+b Other topics in electron and ion emission by liquids and solids and impact phenomena (restricted to new topics in section 79)