revised 11/98

1999 PACS, 80. - 89.

Summary of Scheme

80. Interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology
81. Materials Science
81.05.-t Specific materials: fabrication, treatment, testing and analysis
***** Superconducting materials, see
74.70 and 74.72
***** Magnetic materials, see 75.50
***** Optical materials, see 42.70
***** Dielectric, piezoelectric, and ferroelectric materials, see 77.80
***** Colloids, gels, and emulsions, see 82.70.D, G, K respectively
***** Biological materials, see 87.14
81.05.Bx Metals, semimetals, and alloys
81.05.Cy Elemental semiconductors
81.05.Dz II-VI semiconductors
81.05.Ea III-V semiconductors
81.05.Gc Amorphous semiconductors
81.05.Hd Other semiconductors
81.05.Je Ceramics and refractories (including borides, carbides, hydrides, nitrides, oxides, and silicides)
81.05.Kf Glasses (including metallic glasses)
81.05.Lg Polymers and plastics; rubber; synthetic and natural fibers; organometallic and organic materials
81.05.Mh Cermets, ceramic and refractory composites
81.05.Ni Dispersion-, fiber-, and platelet-reinforced metal-based composites
81.05.Pj Glass-based composites, vitroceramics
81.05.Qk Reinforced polymers and polymer-based composites
81.05.Rm Porous materials; granular materials
81.05.Tp Fullerenes and related materials; diamonds, graphite
81.05.Ys Nanophase materials
81.05.Zx New materials: theory, design, and fabrication
81.10.-h Methods of crystal growth; physics of crystal growth (for crystal structure, see 61)
81.10.Aj Theory and models of crystal growth; physics of crystal growth, crystal morphology and orientation
81.10.Bk Growth from vapor
81.10.Dn Growth from solutions
81.10.Fq Growth from melts; zone melting and refining
81.10.Jt Growth from solid phases (including multiphase diffusion and recrystallization)
81.10.Mx Growth in microgravity environments
81.15.-z Methods of deposition of films and coatings; film growth and epitaxy (for structure of thin films, see 68.55; see also 85.40.S Deposition technology in microelectronics)
81.15.Aa Theory and models of film growth
81.15.Cd Deposition by sputtering
81.15.Ef Vacuum deposition
81.15.Fg Laser deposition
81.15.Gh Chemical vapor deposition (including plasma-enhanced CVD, MOCVD, etc.)
81.15.Hi Molecular, atomic, ion, and chemical beam epitaxy
81.15.Jj Ion and electron beam-assisted deposition; ion plating
81.15.Kk Vapor phase epitaxy; growth from vapor phase
81.15.Lm Liquid phase epitaxy; deposition from liquid phases (melts, solutions, and surface layers on liquids)
81.15.Np Solid phase epitaxy; growth from solid phases
81.15.Pq Electrodeposition, electroplating
81.15.Rs Spray coating techniques
81.20.-n Methods of materials synthesis and materials processing (for ion implantation and doping, see 61.72)
***** Crystal growth, see 81.10
***** Film deposition, film growth and epitaxy, see 81.15
***** Plasma applications in manufacturing and materials processing, see 52.75.R
81.20.Ev Powder processing; powder metallurgy, compaction, sintering, mechanical alloying, and granulation
81.20.Fw Sol-gel processing, precipitation
81.20.Hy Forming; molding, extrusion, etc.
81.20.Ka Chemical synthesis; combustion synthesis
***** Chemical vapor deposition, see 81.15.G
81.20.Rg Aerosols in materials synthesis and processing
81.20.Vj Joining; welding
81.20.Wk Machining, milling
81.20.Ym Purification
81.30.-t Phase diagrams and microstructures developed by solidification and solid-solid phase transformations (see also 64.70 and 64.80-in equations of state, phase equilibria and phase transitions)
81.30.Bx Phase diagrams of metals and alloys
81.30.Dz Phase diagrams of other materials (for phase diagrams of superconductors, see 74.25.D)
81.30.Fb Solidification
81.30.Hd Constant-composition solid-solid phase transformations: polymorphic, massive, and order-disorder
81.30.Kf Martensitic transformations
81.30.Mh Solid-phase precipitation
(see also 64.75 Solubility, segregation, and mixing; phase separation)
81.40.-z Treatment of materials and its effects on microstructure and properties
81.40.Cd Solid solution hardening, precipitation hardening, and dispersion hardening; aging
81.40.Ef Cold working, work hardening; annealing, post-deformation annealing, quenching, tempering recovery, and crystallization
81.40.Gh Other heat and thermomechanical treatments
81.40.Jj Elasticity and anelasticity, stress-strain relations
81.40.Lm Deformation, plasticity, and creep (see also 62.20.F and 62.20.H - in mechanical properties of condensed matter, and 83.50 - in rheology)
81.40.Np Fatigue, corrosion fatigue, embrittlement, cracking, fracture and failure
81.40.Pq Friction, lubrication, and wear (see also 46.30.P - in structural mechanics)
81.40.Rs Electrical and magnetic properties (related to treatment conditions) (see also 72.80, 73.61, and 75.50 - in physics of condensed matter)
81.40.Tv Optical and dielectric properties (related to treatment conditions)
81.40.Vw Pressure treatment
(see also 62.50.P High-pressure and shock-wave effects in solids and liquids)
81.40.Wx Radiation treatment (particle and electromagnetic) (see also 61.80 Physical radiation effects, radiation damage)
***** Etching, corrosion, oxidation, and other surface treatments, see 81.65
81.65.-b Surface treatments (see also 85.40 Microelectronics: LSI, VLSI, ULSI; integrated circuit fabrication technology)
81.65.Cf Surface cleaning, etching, patterning
81.65.Kn Corrosion protection
81.65.Lp Surface hardening: nitridation, carburization, carbonitridation
81.65.Mq Oxidation
81.65.Ps Polishing
81.65.Rv Passivation
81.65.Tx Gettering
81.70.-q Methods of materials testing and analysis (for specific chemical analysis methods, see 82.80)
81.70.Bt Mechanical testing, impact tests, static and dynamic loads
81.70.Cv Nondestructive testing: ultrasonic testing, photoacoustic testing
81.70.Ex Nondestructive testing: electromagnetic testing, eddy-current testing
81.70.Fy Nondestructive testing: optical methods
81.70.Ha Testing in microgravity environments
81.70.Jb Chemical composition analysis, chemical depth and dopant profiling
81.70.Pg Thermal analysis, differential thermal analysis (DTA), differential thermogravimetric analysis
81.90.+c Other topics in materials science (restricted to new topics in section 81)
82. Physical Chemistry (for physical chemistry of solutions of biomolecules, see 87.10.D)
82.20.-w Chemical kinetics
82.20.Db Statistical theories (including transition state)
82.20.Fd Stochastic and trajectory models, other theories and models
82.20.Hf Mechanisms and product distribution
82.20.Kh Potential energy surfaces for chemical reactions (see also
34.20--in atomic and molecular physics)
82.20.Mj Nonequilibrium kinetics
82.20.Pm Rate constants, reaction cross sections, and activation energies
82.20.Rp Energy distribution and transfer; relaxation (see also 31.70.H Time- dependent phenomena - in atomic and molecular physics)
82.20.Tr Kinetic and isotope effects
82.20.Wt Computational modeling; simulation
82.30.-b Specific chemical reactions; reaction mechanisms
82.30.Cf Atom and radical reactions; chain reactions
82.30.Eh Molecule-molecule reactions
82.30.Fi Ion-molecule, ion-ion, and charge-transfer reactions (see also 34.70 Charge transfer in atomic and molecular collisions)
82.30.Hk Chemical exchanges (substitution, atom transfer, abstraction, disproportionation, and group exchange)
82.30.Lp Decomposition reactions (pyrolysis, dissociation, and group ejection)
82.30.Nr Association, addition, insertion, cluster formation, hydrogen bonding
82.30.Qt Isomerization and rearrangement
82.30.Vy Homogeneous catalysis (for heterogeneous catalysis at surfaces, see 82.65.J)
82.35.+t Polymer reactions and polymerization
82.40.-g Chemical kinetics and reactions: special regimes and techniques
***** Chemically reactive flows, see 47.70.F
82.40.Bj Oscillations, chaos, and bifurcations in homogeneous nonequilibrium reactors
82.40.Ck Pattern formation in vortices diffusion systems (see also 47.54 Pattern selection; pattern formation and 47.32.C Vortex dynamics)
82.40.Dm Atomic and molecular beam reactions
82.40.Fp Shock waves (see also 47.40.N Shock-wave interactions and shock effects in fluid dynamics)
82.40.Js Fast and ultrafast reactions
82.40.Mw Pulse techniques
82.40.Py Flames, combustion, and explosions
82.40.Ra Plasma reactions (including flowing afterglow and electric discharges) (see also 81.15.G Chemical vapor deposition)
82.40.Tc Chemiluminescence and chemical laser kinetics (78.60.P Chemiluminescence in optical properties of condensed matter)
82.40.We Atmospheric chemistry (see also 94.10.F Atmospheric composition, chemical reactions and processes)
82.45.+z Electrochemistry and electrophoresis (see also 66.10.E Ionic conduction in liquids; for electroosmosis, see 82.65.F; for electrochemical processes biological membranes, see 87.22.F)
82.50.-m Photochemistry and radiation chemistry (for photochemical reactions of biomolecules, see 87.15.R)
82.50.Fv Photolysis, photodissociation, and photoionization by infrared, visible, and ultraviolet radiation
82.50.Gw Radiolysis, dissociation, and ionization by x-ray, gamma-ray, and particle radiation
82.55.+e Radiochemistry (including hot atom reactions, positronium and muonium chemistry) (see also 23 Radioactive decay and in-beam spectroscopy)
82.60.-s Chemical thermodynamics (see also 05.70 Thermodynamics)
82.60.Cx Enthalpies of combustion, reaction, and formation
82.60.Fa Heat capacities and heats of phase transitions
82.60.Hc Chemical equilibria and equilibrium constants
82.60.Lf Thermodynamics of solutions
82.60.Nh Thermodynamics of nucleation (see also 64.60.Q Nucleation in equations of state, phase equilibria and phase transitions)
82.65.-i Surface and interface chemistry (see also 68.35.M Surface energy; thermodynamic properties)
82.65.Dp Thermodynamics of surfaces and interfaces
82.65.Fr Film and membrane processes: ion exchange, dialysis, osmosis, electroosmosis
82.65.Jv Heterogeneous catalysis at surfaces (for homogeneous catalysis, see 82.30.V)
82.65.My Chemisorption (see also 68.45 Solid-fluid interfaces)
82.65.Pa Surface-enhanced molecular states and other gas-surface interactions (see also 34.50.D Interactions of atoms, molecules, and their ions with surfaces; photon and electron emission; neutralization of ions)
82.70.-y Disperse systems
82.70.Dd Colloids
82.70.Gg Gels and sols
82.70.Kj Emulsions and suspensions
82.70.Rr Aerosols and foams
82.80.-d Chemical analysis and related physical methods of analysis (for related instrumentation, see 07; for biochemical analytic techniques, see 87.64)
82.80.Bg Chromatography
82.80.Ch Ultraviolet, visible, infrared, Raman, microwave, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic analysis methods; spectrophotometry; colorimetry
82.80.Ej X-ray, Mossbauer, and other gamma-ray spectroscopic analysis methods
82.80.Fk Electrochemical methods
82.80.Jp Activation analysis and other radiochemical methods
82.80.Kq Energy-conversion spectro-analytical methods (e.g., photoacoustic, photothermal, and optogalvanic spectroscopic methods)
82.80.Ms Mass spectrometry (including SIMS, multiphoton ionization and resonance ionization mass spectrometry)
82.80.Pv Electron spectroscopy (x-ray photoelectron (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), etc.)
82.80.Sy Methods using colligative properties
82.80.Yc Rutherford backscattering (RBS), and other methods of chemical analysis
82.90.+j Other topics in physical chemistry (restricted to new topics in section 82)
83. Rheology (see also 47 Fluid dynamics)
83.10.-y Fundamentals and general
83.10.Bb Kinematics of deformation and flow
83.10.Dd Dynamics of continuous media
83.10.Ff Continuum mechanics
83.10.Hh Flow of solids
83.10.Ji Fluid dynamics (nonlinear fluids)
83.10.Lk Multiphase flows
83.10.Nn Polymer dynamics
83.10.Pp Particle dynamics
83.20.-d Constitutive relations
83.20.Bg Macroscopic (phenomenological) theories
83.20.Di Microscopic (molecular) theories
83.20.Fk Reptation theories
83.20.Hn Structural and phase changes
83.20.Jp Computer simulation
83.20.Lr Boundary conditions
83.50.-v Deformation; material flow
83.50.Ax Steady shear flows
83.50.By Transient deformation and flow; time-dependent properties: start-up, stress relaxation, creep, recovery, etc.
83.50.Cz Injection molding
83.50.Da Compression molding
83.50.Eb Weissenberg effect
83.50.Fc Linear viscoelasticity
83.50.Gd Nonlinear viscoelasticity
83.50.Jf Extensional and combined flows
83.50.Lh Interfacial and free surface flows; slip
83.50.Nj Viscoplasticity; yield stress
83.50.Pk Effects of electric and magnetic fields
83.50.Qm Thixotropy; thickening flows
83.50.Sp Thermorheological properties; non-isothermal rheology
83.50.Tq Wave propagation, shocks, fracture, and crack healing
83.50.Vr Wave speed
83.50.Ws Chaotic flows; drag reduction
83.50.Yt Flows in processing machinery
83.70.-f Material form
83.70.Bi Homogeneous solids
83.70.Dk Composite solids
83.70.Fn Granular solids
83.70.Gp Homogeneous isotropic liquids; solutions and melts
83.70.Hq Heterogeneous liquids: suspensions, dispersions, emulsions, pastes, slurries, foams, block copolymers, etc.
83.70.Jr Liquid crystals: nematic, cholesteric, smectic, discotic, etc.
83.80.-k Material types
83.80.Bp Thermoplastic polymers
83.80.Cq Thermosetting polymers
83.80.Dr Elastomeric polymers
83.80.Es Polymer blends
83.80.Gv Electro- and magnetorheological fluids
83.80.Jx Chemically reactive materials
83.80.Lz Biological materials: blood, collagen, wood, food, etc.
83.80.Nb Geological materials: Earth, magma, ice, rocks, etc.
83.80.Pc Inorganic materials
83.85.-c Techniques and apparatus
83.85.Cg Rheological measurements
83.85.Ei Optical methods; sonography
83.85.Gk Sensors
83.85.Jn Viscosity measurements
83.85.Lq Normal stress measurements
83.85.Ns Data analysis (interconversion of experiments; computation of relaxation and retardation spectra; time-temperature superposition, etc.)
83.85.Pt Flow computation (e.g., finite element) (see also 02.70 - in Mathematical methods in physics)
83.90.+s Other topics in rheology (restricted to new topics in section 83)
84. Electronics; Radiowave and Microwave Technology; Direct Energy Conversion and Storage
84.30.-r Electronic circuits (for integrated circuits, see 85.40)
84.30.Bv Circuit theory (including computer-aided circuit design and analysis)
84.30.Jc Power electronics, power supply circuits (see also 84.70 High-current and high-voltage technology)
84.30.Le Amplifiers
84.30.Ng Oscillators, pulse generators, and function generators
84.30.Qi Modulators and demodulators; discriminators, comparators, mixers, limiters, and compressors
84.30.Sk Pulse and digital circuits (for pulse generators, see 84.30.N)
84.30.Vn Filters
***** Special purpose circuits, see
84.32.-y Passive circuit components (see also 07.50 Electrical and electronic components, instruments, and techniques)
84.32.Dd Connectors, relays, and switches
84.32.Ff Conductors, resistors (including thermistors, varistors, and photoresistors)
84.32.Hh Inductors and coils; wiring
84.32.Tt Capacitors
84.32.Vv Fuses
84.35.+i Neural networks (for optical neural networks, see 42.79.T, see also 07.05.M Neural networks, fuzzy logic, artificial intelligence in computers in experimental physics; see also 87.18.S in multicellular phenomena)
84.37.+q Electric variable measurements (including voltage, current resistance, capacitance, inductance, impedance, and admittance, etc.)
84.40.-x Radiowave and microwave propagation (including millimeter wave) technology
***** Microwave, submillimeter wave, and radiowave receivers and detectors, see 07.57.K
***** Microwave and radiowave spectrometers, see 07.57.P ***** Electromagnetic wave propagation, see 41.20.J
84.40.Az Waveguides, transmission lines, striplines
84.40.Ba Antennas: theory, components and accessories (for plasma interactions with antennas, see 52.40.F in Plasma physics)
84.40.Dc Microwave circuits
84.40.Fe Microwave tubes (e.g. klystrons, magnetrons, traveling-wave, backward-wave tubes, etc.)
84.40.Ik Masers; gyrotrons (cyclotron-resonance masers)
84.40.Lj Microwave integrated electronics
84.40.Ua Telecommunications: signal transimssion and processing; communication satellites (for optical communications, see 42.79.S)
84.40.Xb Telemetry: remote control, remote sensing; radar
84.47.+w Vacuum tubes (see also 85.45 Vacuum microelectronics)
***** Phototubes, see 85.60.H
***** Microwave tubes, see 84.40.F
84.50.+d Electric motors
84.60.-h Direct energy conversion and storage
84.60.Bk Performance characteristics of energy conversion systems; figure of merit
84.60.Dn Electrochemical conversion and storage: electrochemical cells and batteries; fuel cells
84.60.Jt Photoelectric conversion: solar cells and arrays (for solar collectors and concentrators, see 42.79.E)
84.60.Lw Magnetohydrodynamic conversion (for MHD generators, see 52.75.F)
84.60.Ny Thermionic conversion
84.60.Rb Thermoelectric, electrogasdynamic and other direct energy conversion
84.60.Ve Energy storage systems, including capacitor banks
84.70.+p High-current and high-voltage technology: power systems; power transmission lines and cables (including superconducting cables)
84.90.+a Other topics in electronics, radiowave and microwave technology, and direct energy conversion and storage (restricted to new topics in section 84)
85. Electronic and Magnetic Devices; Microelectronics
***** Vacuum tubes, see 84.47
***** Microwave tubes, see 84.40.F
***** Cathode-ray and storage tubes, see 84.47
***** Phototubes, see 85.60.H
***** Conductors, inductors, and switches, see 84.32
85.25.-j Superconducting devices
85.25.Am Superconducting device characterization, design, and modeling
85.25.Cp Josephson devices
85.25.Dq Superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs)
85.25.Hv Superconducting logic elements and memory devices
85.25.Kx Superconducting wires, fibers, and tapes
85.25.Ly Superconducting magnets; magnetic levitation devices (for superconducting cables, see 84.70)
85.25.Na Superconducting microelectronic circuits
85.25.Pb Superconducting infrared, submillimeter and millimeter wave detectors
***** High power superconducting devices, see 84.70
85.25.Qc Superconducting surface acoustic wave devices and other superconducting devices
85.30.-z Semiconductor devices (for photodiodes and phototransistors, see 85.60.D; for laser diodes, see
85.30.De Semiconductor-device characterization, design, and modeling
85.30.Fg Bulk semiconductor and conductivity oscillation devices (including Hall effect devices, space-charge-limited devices, and Gunn effect devices)
85.30.Hi Surface barrier, boundary, and point contact devices
85.30.Kk Junction diodes
85.30.Mn Junction breakdown and tunneling devices (including resonance tunneling devices)
85.30.Pq Bipolar transistors
85.30.Rs Thyristors
85.30.St Quantum interference devices
85.30.Tv Field effect devices
85.30.Vw Low-dimensional quantum devices (quantum dots, quantum wires, etc.)
85.30.Wx Single electron devices
85.40.-e Microelectronics: LSI, VLSI, ULSI; integrated circuit fabrication technology (see also 85.45 Vacuum microelectronics)
***** Microwave integrated electronics, see 84.40.L
***** Integrated optics, see 42.82
***** Superconducting microelectronic circuits, see 85.25.N
85.40.Bh Computer-aided design of microcircuits; layout and modeling
85.40.Hp Lithography, masks and pattern transfer
***** Micromechanical devices and systems, see 07.10.C
85.40.Ls Metallization, contacts, interconnects; device isolation
85.40.Qx Microcircuit quality, noise, performance, and failure analysis
85.40.Ry Impurity doping, diffusion and ion implantation technology
85.40.Sz Deposition technology (for plasma applications in deposition technology, see 52.75.R)
85.40.Ux Nanometer-scale fabrication technology
***** Bipolar integrated circuits, see 85.30.P
***** Field effect integrated circuits, see 85.30.T
85.40.Xx Hybrid microelectronics; thick films
***** Nanophase materials, see 81.05.Y
85.45.-w Vacuum microelectronics
***** Microwave vacuum microelectronic devices, see 84.40
85.45.Bz Vacuum microelectronic device characterization, design, and modeling
85.45.Db Field emitter and arrays, cold electron emitters
85.45.Fd Field emission displays (FEDS)
85.50.+k Dielectric, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric devices
***** Capacitors, see 84.32.T
85.60.-q Optoelectronic devices (see also 42.79 Optical elements, devices and systems)
85.60.Bt Optoelectronic device characterization, design, and modeling
85.60.Dw Photodiodes; phototransistors; photoresistors
85.60.Gz Photodetectors (including infrared and CCD detectors) (for superconducting infrared detectors, see 85.25.P)
85.60.Ha Photomultipliers; phototubes and photocathodes
85.60.Jb Light-emitting devices
85.60.Me Other optoelectronic devices
85.60.Pg Display systems (see also 07.07.H Display and recording equipment, oscilloscopes, TV cameras, etc.)
85.65.+h Molecular electronic devices
85.70.-w Magnetic devices
***** Molecular magnets, see 75.50.X
***** Magnets, see 07.55.D
***** Superconducting magnets and magnetic levitation devices, see 85.25.L
***** Beam bending magnets, see 41.85.L
85.70.Ay Magnetic device characterization, design, and modeling
85.70.Ec Magnetostrictive, magnetoacoustic, and magnetostatic devices (for magnetostrictive transducers, see 43.38.C in acoustics appendix)
***** Magnetic recording materials, see 75.50.S
85.70.Ge Ferrite and garnet devices
85.70.Kh Magnetic thin-film devices; magnetic heads (magnetoresistive, inductive, etc.); domain-motion devices, etc.
85.70.Li Other magnetic recording and storage devices (including tapes, disks, and drums)
85.70.Rp Magnetic levitation, propulsion and control devices (for superconducting-magnetic levitation devices, see 85.25.L)
85.70.Sq Magnetooptical devices
85.80.-b Electrochemical, thermoelectromagnetic, and other devices (for acoustoelectric devices, see 43.38)
85.80.Dg Electrochemical devices
85.80.Fi Thermoelectric devices
85.80.Jm Magnetoelectric devices
85.80.Lp Magnetothermal devices
85.90.+h Other topics in electronic and magnetic devices and microelectronics
87. Biological and Medical Physics
87.10.+e General theory and mathematical aspects
87.14.-g Biomolecules: types
87.14.Cc Lipids
87.14.Ee Proteins
87.14.Gg DNA, RNA
87.15.-v Biomolecules: structure and physical properties
87.15.Aa Theory and modeling; computer simulation
87.15.By Structure and bonding
87.15.Cc Folding and sequence analysis
87.15.He Dynamics and conformational changes
87.15.Kg Molecular interactions; membrane-protein interactions
87.15.La Mechanical properties
87.15.Mi Spectra, photodissociation, and photoionization; luminescence
87.15.Nn Properties of solutions; aggregation and crystallization of macromolecules
87.15.Rn Reactions and kinetics; polymerization
87.15.Tt Electrophoresis (see also 82.45 Electrochemistry and electrophoresis)
87.15.Vv Diffusion
87.15.Ya Fluctuations
87.16.-b Subcellular structure and processes
87.16.Ac Theory and modeling; computer simulation
87.16.Dg Membranes, bilayers, and vesicles
87.16.Gj Cell walls
87.16.Ka Filaments, microtubules, their networks, and supramolecular assemblies
87.16.Nn Motor proteins
87.16.Qp Pseudopods, lamellipods, cilia, and flagella
87.16.Sr Chromosomes, histones
87.16.Tb Organelles
87.16.Uv Active transport processes; ion channels
87.16.Xa Signal transduction
87.16.Yc Regulatory chemical networks
87.17.-d Cellular structure and processes
87.17.Aa Theory and modeling; computer simulation
87.17.Ee Growth and division
87.17.Jj Cell locomotion; chemotaxis and related directed motion
87.17.Nn Electrophysiology of nerve cells
87.18.-h Multicellular phenomena
87.18.Bb Computer simulation
87.18.Ed Aggregation and other collective behavior of motile cells
87.18.Hf Spatiotemporal pattern formation in cellular populations
87.18.La Morphogenesis
87.18.Pj Chemical waves
87.18.Sn Neural networks
87.19.-j Properties of higher organisms
***** Physiological optics, see
***** Physiological acoustics, see 43.64
***** Psychological acoustics, see 43.66
***** Speech production, see 43.70
***** Speech perception, see 43.71
***** Speech processing and communication systems, see 43.72
87.19.Bb Sensory perceptions
87.19.Dd Information processing in vision and hearing
87.19.Ff Muscles
87.19.Hh Cardiac dynamics
87.19.Jj Circadian rhythms
87.19.La Neuroscience
87.19.Nn Electrophysiology
87.19.Pp Biothermics
87.19.Rr Mechanical properties of tissues and organs
87.19.St Movement and locomotion
87.19.Tt Rheology of body fluids
87.19.Uv Haemodynamics, pneumodynamics
87.19.Xx Diseases
87.23.-n Ecology and evolution
87.23.Cc Population dynamics and ecological pattern formation
87.23.Ge Dynamics of social systems
87.23.Kg Dynamics of evolution
87.50.-a Effects of radiation and external fields on biomolecules, cells and higher organisms
87.50.Gi Ionizing radiations (ultraviolet, x-rays, gamma-rays, ions, electrons, positrons, neutrons, and mesons, etc.)
87.50.Hj Optical radiation (near ultraviolet, visible, and infrared)
87.50.Jk Radiofrequency and microwave radiation (power lines)
87.50.Kk Sound and ultrasound
87.50.Mn Magnetic fields
87.50.Rr Electric fields
87.52.-g Radiation monitoring, control, and safety
87.52.Df Low LET: therapeutic and diagnostic x-rays and electrons
87.52.Ga Low LET: associated neutron shielding and measurement
87.52.Ln High LET
87.52.Px Risk/benefit analysis
87.52.Tr Regulatory isues
87.53.-j Ionizing-radiation therapy physics
87.53.Bn Photon dosimetry: theory and algorithms
87.53.Dq Photon dosimetry: measurements
87.53.Fs Electron and positron dosimetry: theory and algorithms
87.53.Hv Electron and positron dosimetry: measurements
87.53.Jw Brachytherapy
87.53.Kn Conformal radiation treatment
87.53.Ly Stereotactic radiosurgery
87.53.Mr Beam intensity modification: wedges, compensators
87.53.Na Radioimmunotherapy
87.53.Oq Portal imaging in therapy
87.53.Pb Proton, neutron, and heavier particle dosimetry: theory and algorithms
87.53.Qc Proton, neutron, and heavier particle dosimetry: measurements
87.53.Rd Microdosimetry
87.53.St Record and verify systems and applications
87.53.Tf Treatment planning, optimization, tissue response factors, and dose-volume analysis
87.53.Uv Collimation
87.53.Vb Simulation
87.53.Wz Monte Carlo applications
87.53.Xd Quality assurance in radiotherapy
87.54.-n Non-ionizing radiation therapy physics
87.54.Br Thermotherapy (hyperthermia and cryogenic therapy)
87.54.Dt Electrotherapy
87.54.Fj Photodynamic therapy
87.56.-v Radiation therapy equipment
87.56.By Radiation generators
87.56.Da Ancillary equipment
87.56.Fc Quality assurance equipment
87.57.-s Medical imaging: general
87.57.Ce Image quality: contrast, resolution, noise, etc.
87.57.Gg Image reconstruction and registration
87.57.Nk Image analysis
87.58.-b Nuclear medicine imaging, dosimetry, labeling, metabolic studies
87.58.Ce Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)
87.58.Fg Positron emision tomography (PET)
87.58.Ji Radiopharmaceuticals
87.58.Mj Digital imaging
87.58.Pm Scintillation cameras
87.58.Sp Dosimetry
87.58.Vr Quantitative measurements and scanning
87.58.Xs Bone densitometry
87.59.-e X-ray imaging
87.59.Bh X-ray radiography
87.59.Ci Fluoroscopy
87.59.Dj Angiography
87.59.Ek Mammography
87.59.Fm Computed tomography (CT)
87.59.Hp Digital radiography
87.59.Jq Transmission imaging
87.59.Ls Bone densitometry
87.61.-c Magnetic resonance imaging
87.61.Cd Pulse sequences for imaging
87.61.Ff Instrumentation
87.61.Lh Angiography and macroscopic flow estimation
87.61.Pk Clinical imaging studies
87.62.+n Medical imaging equipment
87.63.-d Non-ionizing radiation equipment and techniques
87.63.Df Ultrasonography
87.63.Hg Thermography
87.63.Lk Visible radiation: diaphanography, transillumination, laser imaging
87.63.Pn Electrical impedance tomography (EIT)
87.64.-t Spectroscopic and microscopic techniques in biophysics and medical physics (for spectrometers, see 07.57.P, 07.57.T, 07.60.R, 07.75 and 07.85.N)
87.64.Aa Computer simulation
87.64.Bx Electron, neutron and x-ray diffraction and scattering
87.64.Cc Scattering of visible, uv, and infrared radiation
87.64.Dz Scanning tunneling and atomic force microscopy
87.64.Ee Electron microscopy
87.64.Fb EXAFS spectroscopy
87.64.Hd EPR and NMR spectroscopy
87.64.Je Infrared and Raman spectroscopy
87.64.Lg Electron and photoelectron spectroscopy
87.64.Ni Optical absorption, magnetic circular dichroism, and fluorescence spectroscopy
87.64.Pj Mossbauer spectroscopy
87.64.Rr Light microscopy: bright-field, dark-field, phase contrast, DIC
87.64.Tt Confocal microscopy
87.64.Vv Multiphoton microscopy
87.64.Xx Near-field scanning optical microscopy
87.65.+y Aerospace bio- and medical physics (effects of accelerations, weightlessness and space environment)
87.66.-a Radiation measurement
87.66.Cd Films: silver bromide based, radiochromic, etc.
87.66.Ff Chemical dosimetry
87.66.Jj Ionization dosimetry
87.66.Na Calorimetric dosimetry
87.66.Pm Solid state detectors
87.66.Sq Thermoluminescence, bioluminescence, etc.
87.66.Uv Magnetic resonance
87.66.Xa Phantoms
87.68.+z Biomaterials and biological interfaces
87.80.-y Biological techniques and instrumentation; biomedical engineering
87.80.Cc Optical trapping
87.80.Fe Micromanipulators
87.80.Jg Patch clamping
87.80.Mj Micromachining
87.80.Pa Morphometry and stereology
87.80.Rb Tissue and cellular engineering and biotechnology
87.80.Tq Biological signal processing and instrumentation
87.80.Vt Dynamical, regulatory, and integrative biology
87.80.Xa Neural engineering
87.90.+y Other topics in biological and medical physics (restricted to new topics in section 87)
89. Topics of general interest to physicists
89.20.+a Industrial and technological research and development
89.30.+f Energy resources
89.40.+k Transportation
89.50.+r Urban planning and development
89.60.+x Environmental and ecological studies
89.70.+c Information science
89.80.+h Computer science and technology
89.90.+n Other topics of general interest to physicists (restricted to new topics in section 89)